Though relatively rare sights on our high streets, trundling along pavements, almost inconspicuous in the crowds of pedestrians, odd-looking robot delivery carts could in future become as common as dispatch riders or even parcel vans.
The rapid expansion of e-commerce during the pandemic coupled with advances in automation have spurred growth in the autonomous last-mile delivery sector – the use of robots and drones to ferry goods from depot to customer.
Last-mile delivery is an expensive and inefficient part of the supply chain, largely because it is conducted in congested urban environments and incurs high labour costs. And it is also believed to account for more than 20 per cent of pollution in cities, a figure likely to increase in the coming years as demand for last-mile delivery is expected to grow by 78 per cent globally by 2030.
It is against this background that automated solutions to the final, problematic stage of the supply chain have begun to emerge, with some of the biggest retailers and parcel services in the world employing largely battery-powered robots and drones. At the same time, an array of start-ups are developing the former and the latter. And demand for their services is growing. Indeed, the market for autonomous delivery robots, valued at $17 billion in 2020, is expected to more than triple by 2026.
Some of the technology used in driverless cars and mobile warehouse robots is being employed in robot couriers, which were originally used on campuses for delivering food to students. Pandemic lockdowns and social distancing saw a surge in e-commerce which combined with consumers’ increasing preference for same-day or next-day deliveries have provided optimal conditions for these new dispatch services. And as e-commerce competition grows, their role in improving efficiency in the last-mile supply chain ecosystem could prove to be critical.
The technology is already well-advanced, with robots possessing sensors, such as cameras, radar and GPS to facilitate navigation, says the Economist. It points out that their progress can be tracked on a phone app – which also unlocks them for goods to be retrieved – and ‘telemonitored’ by people in a control room who can take command.
Retail giant Amazon has been deploying its Scout autonomous delivery device in a number of US cities and last year announced plans to further develop the technology in Finland and the UK. Meanwhile, not to be outdone, Amazon’s great rival Alibaba, revealed last autumn that its own robot, dubbed Xiaomanlv or ‘small donkey’ in Mandarin, delivered more than one million parcels in China within a year of its launch.
In an effort to assist retailers’ last-mile operations, FedEx has developed a robot, the FedEx SameDay Bot, to enable companies to accept orders from customers living nearby, with the capacity to negotiate steps to deliver straight to the door. Some British and American stores have been rolling out their own services. For example, in the UK, the Co-op supermarket announced last year plans to more than double its pool of robots to 500, serving several new towns and cities. US regional grocery chain Safeway has piloted its autonomous cart in northern California, while another food retailer Save Mart has expanded its own service in the region.